Welcome to the Students and Trainees Subcommittee blog!

Here, we hope to disseminate information and discuss issues facing students and trainees in medical physics. We also aim to include relevant posts about potential clinical and non-clinical career paths in medical physics.

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Careers Blog Series #7/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Medical Physics Conclusions and Resources


Pursuing a clinical career may not be the professional goal of every medical physics student. Additionally, due to the disparity between the number of graduates and the available number of residency positions, it is currently not an option for all graduating medical physics students. Fortunately, there is a wide range of careers outside of the clinic. Many graduate programs have emphasized clinical careers, however efforts are being made by the AAPM (e.g., the Working Group on Medical Physics Graduate Education Program Curriculum) and program directors to further the development of non-clinical career education. A survey distributed by the AAPM to graduate program directors showed that programs were offering students a variety of activities to help prepare them for non-clinical careers including: performing research projects similar to a company’s R&D division; providing professional development series, career panels, career days, grantsmanship development, internships, business classes, training in radiation protection, internship alternatives to clinical rotations, student presentations, close partnerships with industry and other non-clinical career personnel, non-clinical career seminar series; and offering a non-ABR compliant coursework track [1]. Some of these graduate programs were affiliated with non-medical physics departments such as nuclear engineering or biomedical engineering, thereby exposing students to a wider array of coursework, research, and opportunities.

Several graduate program directors identified the need for career counseling for students, but were unsure how to implement these programs. The AAPM and the Society of Directors of Academic Medical Physics Programs (SDAMPP) have been tasked with providing best practices for informing students about and preparing students for non-clinical careers. This series of blog posts was intended to introduce non-clinical career opportunities for medical physics graduates with the purpose of increasing awareness and initiating further discussion and documentation in this area.

Further resources

The Working Group to Promote Non-Clinical Careers in Medical Physics (WGNCMP) is a working group under the Students and Trainee Subcommittee (STSC) of the AAPM. At the annual meeting, the STSC hosts a number of clinical, non-clinical, and general medical physics events targeting students and trainees including the Annual Student Meeting, Residency Fair, Career Expo, Student Night Out, Interview Workshop, and more. At the 2015 AAPM Annual Meeting, WGNCMP presented a poster about the Assessment of Medical Physics Students and Trainees Interest and Awareness of Non-Clinical Careers. The poster is still available for viewing at this link:

At the 2016 Annual Meeting, the WGNCMP hosted a career networking lunch in collaboration with WGSTR. For more information, visit our AAPM page (http://www.aapm.org/students/). The STSC is happy to address any questions and concerns and may be contacted through their AAPM website (http://www.aapm.org/org/structure/default.asp?committee_code=SPASC).

The Working Group on Student and Trainee Research (WGSTR) is a student-led working group promoting the development of young scientists with a keen interest in research. The objective of this working group is to initiate or promote activities aimed at enhancing and broadening pre-doctoral research. The working group will act as a platform to connect students and trainees that share interest in research-related topics in medical physics in order to gather feedback concerning research-oriented education. WGSTR also hosts events at the annual meeting including a student research luncheon, undergraduate Society of Physics (SPS) poster session, and symposia. For more information visit the WGSTR website:


[1] Tanny, S., Roth, A., Peeler, C., Rodrigues, A., and Ready, J. SU-E-E-04: Assessment of Medical Physics Students and Trainees Interest and Awareness of Non-Clinical Careers. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (2015), DOI: 10.1118/1.4923926. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4m2DyLfzC1EQm5GRGx4TTE4czQ/view.

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Careers Blog Series #6/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Science Policy and Writing

Science Policy

Science policy careers are found on Capitol Hill, within government agencies, and at universities. There is an ever-increasing need for research-trained scientists to contribute to the creation of the policies that regulate and guide scientific and medical fields. Knowledge of the scientific process and science writing skills gained during graduate school can be directly applied in this area.

Physicists are well suited for careers in policy not only because of their scientific training, but because of their ability to break down complex problems into neat and succinct arguments as well. Experience with computer programming and engineering can also develop these analytical skills. Writing, especially for a general audience, is another important skill to hone.

Typically, further training in policy-related topics is necessary in order to make a proper transition into this career path, but fortunately, there are resources available which can assist in providing such experience. Several organizations offer fellowships to give scientists and engineers an introduction to the creation and implementation of policy including the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Institute of Physics (AIP), the American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), SPIE, and the U.S. State Department [1]. These fellowship programs are highly competitive, so students interested in pursuing a career in policy should begin seeking out leadership experience within their graduate programs and/or professional societies early in their graduate career.

No additional certification is necessary for most positions. Positions within a university setting may require a doctoral degree.

The starting salary of policy careers is less than that of a clinical physicist, ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 per annum [2] and these positions may require travel.

Science Writing

Science writers are primarily responsible for educating a non-scientific audience about scientific research. Science writers often work at universities, national laboratories, non-profit foundations, and media outlets. A science writer at a non-profit foundation relays the achievements of scientists who receive grants from the foundation to donors, patients, the general public, and other non-scientists. Some communication of this type has a fundraising component. As a science writer working in a journalist role, articles or media pieces would be about translating science for a lay audience. Science writing positions often allow the writer to additionally follow science outside of medical physics.

To best prepare for a job as a science writer (or communicator) students should take advantage of writing, reviewing, and presenting their work as a part of their education and research. Outside of an educational environment, students can practice these skills by maintaining a journal or blog for public consumption. Students should begin by following science outside of their area of research and practice summarizing it. There are also workshops and fellowships that students may attend to hone their writing skills.
While a PhD is not necessary, it may be a bonus. The average salary ranges from $40,000 to $100,000, depending on experience and credentials [3,4]. These positions are typically constrained to a 40-hour work week and travel may be required.


[1] https://www.aaas.org/page/fellowships, https://www.aip.org/policy/fellowships, https://www.acr.org/Member-Resources/rfs/fellowships, http://spie.org/about-spie/advocacy/public-policy/policy-fellowships, https://www.state.gov/e/stas/fi/
[2] Glassdoor Science Policy Salaries in United States. https://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/us-science-policy-salary-SRCH_IL.0,2_IN1_KO3,17.htm
[3] Glassdoor Science Writer Salaries in United States. https://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/us-science-writer-salary-SRCH_IL.0,2_IN1_KO3,17.htm
[4] How Much Money Do Science Writers Make? http://casw.org/casw/how-much-money-do-science-writers-make

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Career Blog Series #5/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Regulation

A career in regulation can include many different roles at different government agencies including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At the FDA, medical physicists work as scientific reviewers of the safety and effectiveness of new or modified diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and image processing devices prior to entry in the market. Physicists at the FDA may also conduct original scientific research and can be involved in the development of new policies and regulations. Some positions at the NRC include licensing new medical devices, inspecting hospital compliance with regulations, and setting new licensing guidelines for emerging technologies. Physicists employed at NIST primarily work on providing calibration standards for ionization chambers and electrometers used for radiation oncology and nuclear medicine, but also work on phantom standardization as well as research and calibration standards for non-ionizing radiation applications.

The need for supplemental training for regulatory positions depends on the position. Clinical regulations experience is highly valued for a career at the FDA or NRC. Experience can be gained by helping with machine quality assurance, attending radiation safety meetings, volunteering for root cause analysis or event investigation teams, and reading NRC and FDA reports (e.g., event reports, significant enforcement actions, information notices). Additionally, students may encounter regulatory aspects in their research, especially in research focused on areas using radioactive materials regulated by the NRC or machines regulated by the FDA. Finally, additional coursework to pursue include health physics, radiation detection, and regulations.

Careers at the NRC typically require a master’s degree, and additional certifications such as American Board of Radiology (ABR) and Certified Health Physicist (CHP), while beneficial, are not required. NIST strongly recommends applicants have a doctoral degree and does not have a history of requiring additional certifications. The FDA has positions for physicists with master’s and doctoral degrees. In some of these positions, an understanding and experience of clinical applications is highly recommended. This experience could range from completing a residency (CAMPEP accredited or not), volunteering at a clinic, attending radiation safety meetings, and being involved with the clinic or regulations as part of a research project. Additionally, all of these agencies offer internship programs for students to gain experience in regulatory work.

The salary and benefits for the FDA, NIST, and NRC are typically less than that of a clinical position, but the benefits for federal employees are recognized as some of the best in the country. Additionally, employees interviewed for this work (4 professionals at 4 different regulatory organizations) described travel, flexible work hours, and a satisfying work-life balance to be among the benefits [1]. According to the 2017 AAPM Professional Survey, medical physicists performing primarily regulatory and standards duties with a master’s degree and without certification (median 5 years of experience) self-reported an average salary of $123,900 [2]. This self-reported salary increased to $175,200 for physicists with a master’s degree and certification (certification type unspecified; median 20 years of experience). For physicists with a doctoral degree with and without certification, the self-reported average salary was $176,700 and $180,300, respectively (median 20 and 18 years of experience).


[1] Unpublished WGNCMP interviews conducted with professionals having experience with non-clinical careers.
[2] AAPM (2018). Professional Survey Report Calendar Year 2017.

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Career Blog Series #4/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Radiation Safety and Health Physics

Health physics positions revolve around the effects of radiation on human health; typically, for the protection of populations from the risks of ionizing radiation. Health physicists monitor doses, and design and implement new measures for controlling dose. Health physicists typically work at nuclear power plants, pharmaceutical companies, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), universities, and hospitals. However, health physicists are also actively recruited to serve in the military, other government agencies (e.g., US State Department, the US Central Intelligence Agency) and other civilian organizations. For those employed in a hospital or university setting, the job title tends to be Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), but the job description is very similar. Health physics is also a field of active research.

To best prepare for a career in health physics, medical physics students should take all health physics classes available to them and investigate occupational and environmental health safety courses as health physicists often work closely with environmental and occupational health safety workers. For early exposure to health physics careers, internships are available at nuclear power plants, pharmaceutical companies, and other sites that employ health physicists. Further experience can be gained through health physics research, personnel radiation dose monitoring, attending radiation safety meetings on campus or at a hospital, and reading of relevant publications (e.g., ICRP, NCRP, ICRU, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations).

In most cases, a master’s degree is sufficient to work as a health physicist or RSO. Certification by the American Academy of Health Physics (Certified Health Physicist, CHP), the American Board of Medical Physics (Medical Health Physics), or the American Board of Radiology (ABR) may be expected or required. For example, many radiation safety workers at hospitals have some responsibility as a standard clinical medical physicist and, therefore, having completed the ABR certification process may be helpful or expected. To work purely as a health physicist, being a CHP may be beneficial or required.

Health physicists tend to earn less than clinical medical physicists. According to the 2017 AAPM Professional Survey, medical physicists performing health physics duties with a master’s degree and certification (certification type unspecified; median 25 years of experience) earned $155,700 on average [1]. For physicists with a doctoral degree and certification, the self-reported average salary was $193,000 (median 16 years of experience).


[1] AAPM (2017). Professional Survey Report Calendar Year 2017. https://www.aapm.org/AAPMUtilities/download.asp?file=surveys/AAPM-Salary17.pdf

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Career Blog Series #3/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Academic Research & Education

Academic medical physicists pursue research and educational activities. Their research is often focused on improving disease diagnosis and/or treatment. Many of these academic scientists work with advanced, experimental technology and can be developmental (creating new techniques, applications, or approaches), theoretical (e.g., developing methods for scientific analysis of images), or translational (adapting techniques for direct use in the clinic). In a university setting, these physicists may work in medical physics, physics, medical (oncology, radiology, etc.), or engineering departments. As such, they may be teaching medical physics and related subjects to future medical physicists or to a larger population within these departments. Different positions have a range of teaching, clinical, research, professional development, and administrative duties. Additionally, there are positions outside of universities that physicists may pursue including positions at large research facilities (e.g., National Cancer Institute (NCI), research hospitals).

Medical physicists involved in academic research are often primarily funded through research grants available from public and private agencies. In the United States, the NCI and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in particular, have active grant programs and provide significant funding for medical physics and cancer treatment researchers. Funding is highly competitive with overall success rates for R01 and R21 grants for the NCI at 12.5% and 8.0%, respectively, in 2017 [1]. NIBIB applications had overall success rates of 19.2% and 8.5% for R01 and R21 grants, respectively, for the same year. The success rate is often lower for new investigators who do not have an extensive publication record, but grant mechanisms have been developed specifically to encourage more junior researchers and increase their funding opportunities. Additionally, the university at which the academic medical physicist is based will often provide start-up funds that can help establish a research program and obtain pilot data in support of grant applications. Grants or contracts may also be obtained from private companies or philanthropic organizations looking to fund certain research projects that align with their interests. Finally, some researchers receive more limited funds for teaching students in the classroom as well as their laboratory.

Physicists hoping to pursue academic research should be prepared to teach and perform research. Graduate students can gain teaching experience through a variety of activities, including working as a teaching assistant, providing guest lectures, and tutoring. When applying for teaching positions, candidates will be expected to provide a teaching philosophy, sample syllabus, and lecture in a relevant topic. It is recommended that interested candidates seek resources to help develop each of these items (e.g., [2]).

While graduate schools provide research experience, additional experience in the form of a 1 to 3 year post-doctoral (post-doc) fellowship is often required to competitively pursue tenure-track research positions. One alternative to the traditional post-doc is a hybrid clinical medical physics residency and research program (guidelines for such programs are being developed by AAPM Task Group No. 278). The aim of such programs is to prepare medical physics trainees for both clinical and academic and/or research careers.

The degree requirements for academia are typically a doctoral degree for research positions and, at minimum, a master’s degree for teaching positions. According to the 2017 AAPM Professional Survey Report, approximately 5.3% of members who responded to the survey (173) work primarily in academic positions (many more are primarily clinical with some academic duties) [3]. These include 60 uncertified members with a doctoral degree, 98 certified members with a doctoral degree, and 6 certified members working in Canada with a doctoral degree. The average self-reported salary for these members ranged from $139,300 for uncertified doctoral degree-holders (median 16 years of experience) to $223,100 for certified doctoral degree-holders (median 18 years of experience). In Canada, certified doctoral degree-holders working primarily in academia reported an average income of $189,000 (median 30 years of experience). It should also be noted that in recent years, the academic job market has become increasingly competitive. A recent study shows that overall only 12.8% of doctoral degree graduates can obtain academic positions in the US [4], though this is highly dependent on the field of study.

Secondary institutions and community colleges

Teaching high school or community/technical college physics is an additional non-clinical career option. This career typically offers the flexibility of 2-3 months of contiguous vacation per year, positions in a variety of geographic areas, and the opportunity to include medical physics topics as examples in the curriculum. Teaching high school physics typically requires a pedagogical degree, such as a Bachelor of Education or, more commonly, a Master of Education. This may be unnecessary, however, for private schools and many states now provide alternative licensure pathways for physics teachers with advanced degrees. As of 2017, the US average salary for a public school teacher was $58,950 (for a 9-month contract); however, salary ranges widely depending on geographic location [5].


[1] National Institutes of Health (2018). Research Project Grants and Other Mechanisms Competing Applications, Awards, Success Rates and Total Funding. https://report.nih.gov/success_rates/index.aspx
[2] Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL). http://www.cirtl.net/.
[3] AAPM (2018). Professional Survey Report Calendar Year 2017. https://www.aapm.org/AAPMUtilities/download.asp?file=surveys/AAPM-Salary17.pdf
[4] Larson, R.C., Graffarzadegan, N., and Xue, Y. Too Many PhD Graduates or Too Few Academic Job Openings: The Basic Reproductive Number R0 in Academia. Syst Res Behav Sci. 31(5): 745-750. January, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309283/
[5] National Center for Education Statistics (2017). Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2016-17. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d17/tables/dt17_211.60.asp

clinical medical physics

Non-Clinical Career Blog Series #2/7: Non-Clinical Careers in Industry

Industry careers combine the knowledge of modern health-care delivery with scientific research, product development, and experimental design. Jobs are often in one of three primary areas: research and development, sales, or customer support. Research and development physicists create new and innovative products and may work at a managerial or individual product level. Sales people assist customers in acquiring the best products to address their needs and communicate unmet customer needs to their employer. Customer support physicists are involved in installation, training, and troubleshooting clinical devices.

The skill set needed within the medical industry, although sharing many similarities to medical physics education, requires a greater focus on specific areas to make a candidate more desirable to an industrial corporation. Physicists pursuing careers in medical industry need to understand physics, software development, and clinical implementation, which are essential to producing a safe, quality, and reliable product. More specifically, the ability to work fluently with open-source computer programming languages (Python, Ruby, Javascript) and relate it to clinical applications is a skill highly sought after by industrial employers. Analytical skills, along with a working knowledge of statistically related concepts such as Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Statistical Process Control (SPC), are also valuable. For employment directly related to research and development, a working knowledge of the regulatory standards governing medical equipment is important; specifically, knowledge of guidance documentation produced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The most desirable soft skills are the ability to present and communicate effectively, the capacity to work well as a member of a functioning team, and a knowledge of basic finance to aid in product decision making [1].

To gain employment within an industrial setting, it is important to have completed at least one large, comprehensive scientific project. Ideally, the project will be related to the clinical health care environment, employ the use of quantitative data to determine a result, and answer a clearly defined objective at the completion of the project. The use of computer programming within a research project is desirable. In many instances, research projects completed to satisfy the requirements of a master’s or doctoral degree will meet these criteria, although it may be advantageous to demonstrate a repertoire of completed projects.

Opportunities to sample a career in industry can be found in the form of internships as several large radiation oncology and medical imaging companies offer paid internships for students. While many industry careers do not require a doctoral degree, it is regarded highly by many industrial employers. Board certification is often not required, but demonstrable clinical experience can be an advantage. Participating in a clinical internship often provided by medical physics graduate programs is a great way to satisfy this requirement. Research scientists in industry also often need to be conversant with methods involved in conducting clinical trials.

An alternative pathway from graduate studies to industry is the I-Corps program offered by both the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [2] and the National Science Foundation (NSF) [3]. This program seeks to commercialize promising academic research and give academic researchers valuable entrepreneurial experience. Additionally, the NIH offers seed funding mechanisms such as the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) that allow graduate students to perform collaborative research with industry during graduate school [4].

The salaries of industrial career physicists approach that of clinical physicists. The average self-reported salary of physicists working in industry range from $132,700 for uncertified physicists with a master’s degree (median 17 years of experience) to $222,400 for board-certified physicists with a doctoral degree (median 15 years of experience) based on the 2017 AAPM Professional Survey Report [5].


[1] Unpublished WGNCMP interviews conducted with professionals having experience with non-clinical careers.
[2] https://sbir.cancer.gov/programseducation/icorps
[3] https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/i-corps/
[4] https://sbir.cancer.gov/funding/opportunities/SBIR-STTR-omnibus-solicitation
[5] AAPM (2018). Professional Survey Report Calendar Year 2017. https://www.aapm.org/AAPMUtilities/download.asp?file=surveys/AAPM-Salary17.pdf

non-clinical tracks

Non-Clinical Career Blog Series #1/7: Introduction to Non-Clinical Careers and General Advice


Medical physics started as an academic effort of scientists to develop new elements of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, but over the past few decades has expanded to become a profession with a substantial clinical component. . Students in medical physics can and do participate in a wide array of careers, including clinical, academic, research, industry, and regulatory. Despite the breadth of opportunity, the clinical career path is the most common for students in training today. Information, guidance, and additional training for non-clinical careers is less common in many academic programs, and less than 50% of students (median: 3.3 years of experience in medical physics; 165 respondents) feel knowledgeable about their non-clinical career options [1].

The lack of student awareness of non-clinical careers is, in part, because many current medical physics graduate programs are heavily biased towards clinical careers. Many graduate programs are staffed by physicists who hold primary appointments as clinical medical physicists. The remaining faculty tend to be physicists working in academic research. Thus, graduate students are well prepared for and knowledgeable of clinical and academic career paths, but not as knowledgeable about other careers. Most graduate programs strive to obtain (or maintain) Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) accreditation, which follows standards appropriate for the training of clinical physicists.  CAMPEP accreditation does allow the option for programs to have tracks for students not interested in certification by the American Board of Radiology (ABR), though only a small number of students generally participate in that track. A common experience is that, non-clinical training is not prioritized and students are not necessarily informed of all the opportunities open to them as they enter the world of medical physics.

Although students are primarily educated about their clinical opportunities, there is no guarantee that students will be able to pursue an ABR-certified clinical career. In 2014, the ABR began requiring students who entered into the ABR process to complete a CAMPEP-accredited residency program prior to their eligibility for full board certification. This standardized clinical training, but also limited the number of physicists able to become ABR certified. In 2016, 258 students graduated with a master’s degree, doctoral degree, professional doctorate, or certificate from a CAMPEP-accredited program; yet there were only 144 residency positions available [2]. This disparity demonstrates the need to educate medical physics students about non-clinical career opportunities that may be available.

To help address this unmet need, the Working Group to Promote Non-Clinical Careers in Medical Physics (WGNCMP) was formed in 2014. The mission of the WGNCMP is to investigate opportunities for trained medical physicists outside of the clinic, and to disseminate this information as well as the necessary training to obtain these positions. This series of blog posts is intended to educate medical physicists about the career options available to them beyond clinical physics, including entry requirements for these alternative careers.

General advice

The 2015 AAPM Professional Survey reports that 81% of its members work in primarily clinical roles [3]. The remaining 19% work primarily in academic, administrative, regulatory, or industrial roles. However, it is unclear how many non-AAPM physicists work in non-clinical roles in fields that could be considered as part of medical physics. A separate report from the Centers for Health Workforce Studies discusses an independent model for non-clinical medical physicists [4]. In this report, it is noted that board certification is typically not a requirement for employment, and that specialization in a category such as therapy or diagnostic imaging is not as prevalent. The lack of certification and specialization requirements may make non-clinical jobs potentially easier to obtain, while frequently offering comparable pay and potentially better work-life balance to clinical positions. Non-clinical career paths are open to physicists with either a master’s or doctoral degree. These factors make non-clinical careers attractive to those physicists who are not exclusively interested in a clinical career. Additionally, physicists looking to change career paths from clinical to non-clinical do not face the same “administrative” hurdles as ones trying to go in the reverse direction.

In a series of interviews with professional non-clinical medical physicists, three common skills were stressed as a requirement of applicants: communication, interpersonal skills, and organization [5]. Communication includes being able to send effective, efficient, and courteous e-mails, present research to both fellow scientists and to an audience of non-experts, and write technical reports. Interpersonal skills include effective and professional interaction with co-workers, customers, and others. Organization is the efficient use of time, budget, and other resources and is an important quality for communicating with others. These skills are important for any career – clinical or non-clinical – and can be developed during training. Those surveyed recommended that students practice these skills while still in school and ask for feedback and criticism from both mentors and fellow students. Individual career paths require additional training, which will be described in depth in the blog posts to follow.


[1] Tanny, S., Roth, A., Peeler, C., Rodrigues, A., and Ready, J. SU-E-E-04: Assessment of Medical Physics Students and Trainees Interest and Awareness of Non-Clinical Careers. American Association of Physicists in Medicine (2015), DOI: 10.1118/1.4923926. https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4m2DyLfzC1EQm5GRGx4TTE4czQ.

[2] Loughery, Brian, et al. “Navigating the medical physics education and training landscape.” Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics 18.6 (2017): 275-287. DOI: 10.1002%2Facm2.12202.

[3] AAPM (2016). Professional Survey Report Calendar Year 2015. https://www.aapm.org/pubs/protected_files/surveys/AAPM-Salary15.pdf

[4] Center for Health Workforce Studies (2010). Workforce Study of Medical Physicists in the U.S. Rensselaer, NY. https://www.aapm.org/pubs/studies.asp

[5] Unpublished WGNCMP interviews conducted with professionals having experience with non-clinical careers.